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@ThomasFasano
English teacher, author, typewriter collector, lover of classical music, connoisseur of good things.

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    Nouns and Classes of Nouns

    A Noun is a word that names something. The something that a noun names may be:

    (1) An animate or an inanimate thing with physical existence: as, person, dog, plant, stone, winner, town.

    (2) An abstract or spiritual concept: as, compassion, honor, hatred, honesty, love.

    (3) Some quality or property belonging to an object; as, color, weight, thickness, density.

    (4) An action: as, singing, exercising, dancing.

    Note. In the sentence, “Studying is necessary to pass the exam,” studying is a noun (gerund) because it is the name of an act and is the subject of the verb is; but notice that in “He was studying all night,” studying is not a noun: it is a part of the verb was studying, which tells what he was doing.

    Classes of Nouns

    Nouns fall into two classes: Common Nouns and Proper Nouns.

    (1) A Common Noun is the name for all the members of a class of objects—that is, the name is common to all the members of the class: as, state, country, man, bank, lake.

    (2) A Proper Noun is the distinctive name of an individual member of a class: as, Virginia (a member of the class of state), Germany (country), William (male), Erie (lake).

    The word “proper” traces its root through the word “property” and has the meaning of “one’s own.” In writing, proper nouns are capitalized. Such words as Pepsi (a can of Pepsi), the French, a Canadian, a Moose (a member of the Moose Lodge), Democrats, Protestants, etc., are also capitalized. Although these nouns are names common to all the members of a class, they are also the names of particular members of a class.

    Special Classes. The two classes—common and proper—cover all nouns, but included in these two are some special types.

    (1) An Abstract Noun names a cognitive or abstract concept: as, benevolence, courtesy, trust, tranquility, strength, resilience.

    (2) A Collective Noun is the name of a collection or group of similar objects: as, mob, herd, club, team, company (a commercial organization), U.S. Navy, United Nations, Republican Party, Army Corps of Engineers.

    (3) A Compound Noun is a combination of two or more existing nouns or other parts of speech: as, grandmother, highway, businessman, commander-in-chief, brother-in-law, sales department, payroll, Marriott Hotel, Apple Computer.

    (4) A Count Noun names something that can be counted and may be either physical or abstract: as, pencil, pencils; mouse, mice; idea, ideas; dream, dreams.

    (5) A Noncount Noun (also known as a Mass Noun) is the name of something that cannot be counted and is used only in the singular; it may or may not be abstract: as, clutter, wisdom, silence, satisfaction, music.

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    Also on Facebook and Twitter. All writing on this site is copyrighted © by Thomas Fasano 2014-15. Any additional copyrighted material is included as “fair use” for critical analysis only, and will be removed at the request of copyright owner(s).

    The Parts of Speech

    A sentence is the largest unit of grammar and consists of words combined so as to express a complete thought. Each word performs a particular function in expressing that thought, and all words are classified according to their respective functions into eight Parts of Speech.

    The Eight Parts of Speech are:

    Nouns Verbs Prepositions
    Pronouns Adverbs Conjunctions
    Adjectives Interjections

    Nouns Verbs Prepositions

    Pronouns Adverbs Conjunctions

    Adjectives Interjections

    A Noun is a word that names a person, place, thing, or idea: as, man, student, defiance.

    The man ran effortlessly.

    The student was suspended for defiance.

    A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun: as, she, we, who.

    She was here.

    We are the people who pay the highest taxes.

    An Adjective is a word that limits the meaning of or modifies a noun: as, brown or last.

    He wore a brown coat.

    The soldier took the last train home.

    A Verb is a word that expresses an action, condition, or state: as, walk, dance, read, sleep, is.

    The girls dance gracefully.

    My sister sleeps till noon.

    An Adverb is a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb: as, softly, quickly, very, too, often.

    She played the piano softly.

    The soup was very hot.

    He got into trouble too often.

    A Preposition is a connecting word or word group that shows the relationship that exists between a noun or a pronoun to some other word in the sentence: as, on, over, to, through, from, of.

    The plane flew over the mountain.

    The boy threw the ball through the window.

    He sat across from us.

    A Conjunction is a word or word group that connects words, phrases, clauses, and sentences: as, and, but, because, although.

    The officer and his troops fought bravely.

    You can be lazy, but don’t expect success.

    He tightened the nuts hard so that the tire would stay on.

    An Interjection is an exclamatory word that “interrupts”; it has little or no grammatical relationship to the rest of the sentence.

    Ouch, that hurts.

    These eight classifications can be divided into four groups according to the relation between the different parts of speech.

    (1) Nouns; Pronouns (used in place of nouns); Adjectives (modifiers of nouns).

    (2) Verbs; Adverbs (primarily modifiers of verbs).

    (3) Prepositions and Conjunctions (connecting words).

    (4) Interjections (having no grammatical relation to the sentence).

    The following sentence contains seven of the Parts of Speech and demonstrates their uses.

    Several bright engineers worked diligently on the project and completed it by the deadline.

    Engineers, project, and deadline are nouns; they name things.

    It is a pronoun standing for the noun project.

    Several and bright are adjectives modifying the noun engineers.

    The is an adjective (article) modifying the noun project.

    Worked and completed are verbs—they tell what the engineers did; in other words, they make a statement about the engineers.

    Diligently is an adverb modifying the verb worked—it describes the manner of their working.

    On and by are prepositions—on shows the relation of the noun project to the verb worked; by shows the relation of the noun deadline to the verb completed.

    And is a conjunction connecting the verbs worked and completed.

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    Also on Facebook and Twitter. All writing on this site is copyrighted © by Thomas Fasano 2014-15. Any additional copyrighted material is included as “fair use” for critical analysis only, and will be removed at the request of copyright owner(s).

    Tom Wolfe

    Tom Wolfe working at his typewriter in his New York City apartment.

    One of my favorite pictures of Tom Wolfe at work typing on an Underwood Typemaster from the early 1970s.

    Also on Facebook and Twitter. All writing on this site is copyrighted © by Thomas Fasano 2014-15. Any additional copyrighted material is included as “fair use” for critical analysis only, and will be removed at the request of copyright owner(s).

    Karl Shapiro Interview

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qc36PCDMB-I

    This is the only filmed interview of the great poet Karl Shapiro I’ve been able to find. It’s been sourced from a 16mm film by Karl Shapiro and Arthur Hoyle, Santa Monica, CA: Pyramid Films, 1976.

    Also on Facebook and Twitter. All writing on this site is copyrighted © by Thomas Fasano 2014-15. Any additional copyrighted material is included as “fair use” for critical analysis only, and will be removed at the request of copyright owner(s).